Java CompletableFuture API Improvements

The CompletableFuture in java was introduced in java 8. It is the enhanced version of Future interface.  Java 9 provides some more functions to improve it and solve problems raised in Java SE 8. Java 9 provides method to delays and timeouts, some utility methods and better sub-classing.

Java CompletableFuture

It Java completablefuture added 8 new methods, they are:

  1. Executor defaultExecutor()
  2. CompletableFuture<U> newIncompleteFuture()
  3. CompletableFuture<T> copy()
  4. CompletionStage<T> minimalCompletionStage()
  5. CompletableFuture<T> completeAsync(Supplier<? extends T> supplier, Executor executor)
  6. CompletableFuture<T> completeAsync(Supplier<? extends T> supplier)
  7. CompletableFuture<T> orTimeout(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
  8. CompletableFuture<T> completeOnTimeout(T value, long timeout, TimeUnit unit)

1. Executor defaultExecutor()

This method returns the default executors for asynchronized methods that don’t specify the executor. This method can be overridden in subclasses and return an Executor.

new CompletableFuture().defaultExecutor()

2. Method newIncompleteFuture()

This method returns an object of new incomplete CompletableFuture of the same type.  The subclasses override the method and returns an instance of the same class as this CompletableFuture.

public <U> CompletableFuture<U> newIncompleteFuture() {
        return new CompletableFuture<U>();
    }

3. Method copy()

This method is used to get copy of CompletableFuture. It retuns a new object of CompletableFuture :

1. If existing CompletableFuture gets completed normally, then new object also complete normal.   

2. If existing CompletableFuture completes exceptionally then it will return CompletableFuture with exceptionally.

public CompletableFuture<T> copy() {
        return uniCopyStage(this);
    }

4. Method minimalCompletionStage()

This method is used to get the new object of CompletionStage. It works similarly as described by the copy method.  It throws UnsupportedOperationException in every attempt to retrieve or set the resolved value.

public CompletionStage<T> minimalCompletionStage() {
        return uniAsMinimalStage();
    }

5.  Methods completeAsync()

This method is used to complete the execution of CompletableFuture with given supplier. It is an overloaded method.

public CompletableFuture<T> completeAsync(Supplier<? extends T> supplier) {
        return completeAsync(supplier, defaultExecutor());
    }

This method takes only one parameter of Supplier type.





public CompletableFuture<T> completeAsync(Supplier<? extends T> supplier,
                                              Executor executor) {
        if (supplier == null || executor == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        executor.execute(new AsyncSupply<T>(this, supplier));
        return this;
    }

This method takes two parameters Supplier and Executor.

6. Methods orTimeout()

This method is used to complete the CompletableFuture Exceptionally when given time out. It can complete before time also.

public CompletableFuture<T> orTimeout(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) {
        if (unit == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        if (result == null)
            whenComplete(new Canceller(Delayer.delay(new Timeout(this),
                                                     timeout, unit)));
        return this;
    }

7. Method completeOnTimeout()

This method is used to Complete the CompletableFuture normally with the specified value unless it is completed before the specified timeout. It returns an object of completeOnTimeout.

public CompletableFuture<T> completeOnTimeout(T value, long timeout,
                                                  TimeUnit unit) {
        if (unit == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        if (result == null)
            whenComplete(new Canceller(Delayer.delay(
                                           new DelayedCompleter<T>(this, value),
                                           timeout, unit)));
        return this;
    }

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